Abortion Miscarriage; most often in the first third of pregnancy
Adhesions Adhesions in the abdominal cavity, which can form after inflammation or surgery
amenorrhoea at least 6 months without menstruation although there is no pregnancy
Anamnesis Medical history of a patient
Androgenic male hormones (e.g. testosterone), are also produced in the adrenal gland and ovary in women
Assisted hatching Incision of the zona pellucida surrounding the embryo to assist hatching
Asthenozoospermia Restricted sperm cell motility
Azoospermia No sperm cells in the seminal fluid
Blastomere single cell of a multicell embryo
Blastocyst Developmental stage of an embryo at the time of implantation in the endometrium
Chlamydia pathogens that can cause inflammation of the fallopian tubes
Clomiphene synthetic hormone in tablet form for stimulation of the ovaries
Corpus luteum Corpus luteum; emerges from the follicle after ovulation and produces progesterone
Embryo Name of the early foetus until the end of the first trimester of pregnancy.
Embryo transfer Transfer of IVF/ICSI extracorporeally created embryos into the uterus
Endometriosis Proliferation of scattered uterine mucosa cells in the abdominal cavity; often leads to period pains and infertility
Endometrium endometrium uterine lining
Extrauterine pregnancy ectopic pregnancy
fetus also fetus, child in the womb after the 3rd month of pregnancy
follicle maturing follicle in the ovary
Folliculometry Determination of follicle size and number by ultrasound
FSH follicle stimulating hormone; pituitary gland hormone that stimulates the ovaries to mature ovarian follicles and produce estrogen
Gametes Germ cells, i.e. sperm cells and oocytes
GnRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone; hormone from the hypothalamus, stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete the hormones FSH and LH
GnRH analogs Drugs that suppress the function of the ovaries and thus allow the control of hormonal ovarian stimulation
Gonadotropins LH and FSH, pituitary gland hormones that stimulate the ovaries
hCG human chorionic gonadotropin; the pregnancy hormone can be detected in the blood after implantation of the embryo.
Heterologous insemination Insertion of donor sperm into the uterus in cases of male infertility
hMG human menopausal gonadotropin; mixture of the hormones LH and FSH, which is obtained from the urine of menopausal women and is very frequently used as a stimulation preparation.
Testicular biopsy Tissue removal from the testicles.
Pituitary gland; secretes the gonadotropin hormones LH and FSH, among others, which stimulate the ovaries
Hypothalamus Part of the midbrain that controls the pituitary gland via certain hormones.
ICSI Intracytoplasmic sperm injection; in vitro fertilisation method in which a single sperm cell is injected into an egg.
Implantation Implantation of an embryo in the endometrium
Insemination Insertion of sperm cells into the uterus by means of a catheter
IVF in vitro fertilisation; artificial insemination procedure in which eggs extracted from the woman's ovaries are brought together with sperm cells from the partner, incubated and, if fertilisation is successful, inserted into the uterus.
Waiting period Period of sexual abstinence
Cryopreservation Deep freezing and storage of biological material, e.g. of fertilised eggs or sperm cells.
Laparoscopy Laparoscopy; procedure to assess the patency of the fallopian tubes and for sterility operations.
LH Luteinising hormone of the pituitary gland, which is massively released in the middle of the cycle and triggers ovulation
LH-Peak Massive, ice-triggering LH release in the middle of the cycle
Masturbation Causing an orgasm. During fertility treatment, the man thus obtains the sperm.
Menopause Last menstrual period before the climacteric (menopause).
Menstruation Menstrual period; serves to repel the lining of the uterus.
MESA Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration; collection of sperm cells from the epididymis.
Micro-injection See ICSI
Mucus Mucus of the cervix
Nidation Implantation of the embryo into the lining of the uterus.
Normozoospermia Normal semen findings
Estrogens Female sex hormones that are produced in the ovary. Control the build-up of the lining of the uterus.
Oligomenorrhoea rare menstrual bleeding with intervals of at least 35 days
Oligozoospermia Limited number of sperm cells in the ejaculate (less than 20 million per ml)
Oocyte Egg cell
Ovarian insufficiency restricted ovarian function
Ovulation Ovulation; transfer of the egg from the ovary into the fallopian tube.
Placenta placenta; takes over the nutrient supply of the foetus during pregnancy and produces hormones that serve to maintain the pregnancy.
Progesterone Corpus luteum hormone; prepares the lining of the uterus for the implantation of an embryo and maintains the pregnancy
Pronucleus stage Pronuclear stage of the egg cell; can be observed about one day after fertilisation.
Sonography Ultrasound examination
Spermatogenesis Also spermatogenesis; formation of sperm cells in the testicles.
Semen Male sperm cell
Spermiogram Determination of the number, motility and shape of the sperm cells.
Sterilization Interruption of the woman's fallopian tubes or the man's spermatic ducts for the purpose of contraception.
Subfertility Limited fertility
TESE Testicular sperm extraction; method for obtaining sperm cells from testicular tissue
Testosterone Male sex hormone; promotes the formation and maturation of sperm
Teratozoospermia abnormally high proportion of malformed sperm cells in the ejaculate.
Tube Fallopian tube
Tubar pregnancy Ectopic pregnancy; implantation of an embryo in the fallopian tube